Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th Chemistry

Carbon and it's Compounds Notes Class 10th Chemistry
Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th Chemistry

Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th Chemistry. Here I have covered the Brief Introduction and some really important topics related to this chapter.

This is the Brief Explanation of the topics there in your NCERT book. I have also covered all the topics in detail which are divided into 3 Parts. If you want to do the Detailed notes of this chapter then just check out here. Part 1, Part 2, Part 3.

Introduction:- Carbon and its Compounds Notes Class 10th

  1. The Element carbon is a non-metal. its symbol is C.
  2. Carbon is a versatile element the percentage of carbon present in earth crust in the form of minerals is 0.02% and in the atmosphere, as CO2 is 0.003%.
  3. all the living things, plants, and animals are made up of carbon-based compounds.

Carbon always form covalent Bonds:-

The Atomic number of the Carbon is 6. Electronic Configuration of Carbon is 2,4.

Q. How Carbon Attain noble gas Configuration?

(i). Carbon is tetravalent, It does not form an Ionic bond by either loosing 4 electrons or by gaining 4 electrons. It is difficult to hold fo0ur extra electrons and would require a large amount of energy to remove four electrons. So, Carbon can form a bond by sharing of its electrons with the electrons of other carbon atom or with other elements and attain noble as configuration.

The atoms of other elements like Hydrogen, Oxygen, and nitrogen, chlorine also form bonds by sharing of electrons.

The Bond formed by the sharing of electrons between the same or different atoms is a covalent bond.

Physical properties of the Covalent compound:-

  1. Covalent Compounds have low melting and boiling points as they have a lower force of attraction,
  2. They are generally poor conductors of electricity as electrons are shared between the atoms and no charged particles are formed.

Versatile nature of Carbon:-

The two characteristics properties of carbon element lead to the formation of a large number of compounds.

  1. Catenation:- carbon can link with carbon atoms by means of covalent bonds to form long chains, branched chains and closed ring compounds. carbon atoms may be linked by a Single, Double or Triple Bonds.
  2. Tetravalency:- Carbon has 4valency electrons. Carbon can bond with four carbons atoms, monovalent atoms, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

Saturated and UnsaturatedCarbon Compounds:-

Compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon are called hydrocarbon.

Saturated Hydrocarbons:- Single bond between carbon atoms, -C-C-, Alkanes, General Formula CnH2n+2

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons:- Double or Triple bond between carbon atoms. Alkenes(CnH2n), Alkynes(CnH2n-2).

The names, Molecular formula and saturated formulae of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are given below:

Functional Groups:-

  1. In the hydrogen chain, one or more hydrogen atom is replaced by the atoms in accordance with their vacancies. These are heteroatoms.
  2. These heteroatoms or group of atoms that make carbon compound reactive nad decides its properties are called functional Froups.

Homologous Series:-

it is a series of the compound in which some functional group substitutes the hydrogen in a carbon Chain.

Example:- Alcohol— Ch3COOh, C2H5OH, C2H7OH, C4H9OH.

  1. Have the same general Formula.
  2. Any two homologous differ by -CH2 group and difference is molecular mass is 14u.
  3. Have the same chemical properties but show graduate; change in physical properties.

Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds:-

  1. Identify the number of carbon atoms in compounds.
  2. A functional group is indicated by suffix or prefix.

Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds:-

(a) Combustion, CH4 + 2O2 ——–> CO2 + 2H2O + heat + Light

  1. Carbon and its compound are used in making fuels because they burn in the air releasing a lot of heat energy.
  2. Saturated hydrocarbon generally burns in air with blue and non-shooty flame.
  3. Unsaturated hydrocarbons burn in the air with shooty flame because the percentage off carbon in higher than saturated hydrocarbons which do not get completely oxidized in air.

(B). Oxidation:-

Alcohols can be converted carboxylic acid in presence of oxidizing agent alkaline KMnO4 (Potassium Permanganate) or acidic potassium dichromate.

CH3CH2OH ——–> CH3COOH (Ethanoic acid)

(C). Additional Reaction:- Unsaturated hydrocarbon add hydrogen in the presence of catalyst palladium or Nikel. Vegetable oils are converted into vegetable ghee using this process is also called hydrogenation of vegetable oils.

(d). Substitution Reaction:– CH4 + Cl2 —-> Ch2Cl + HCl

Important carbon Compounds: Ethanol and Ethanoic Acids:-

Physical properties of the Ethanol:

  1. Colorless, pleasant smell and burning taste.
  2. Soluble in water.
  3. Volatile liquid with a low boiling point of 351K.
  4. Neutral Compound.

Chemical Properties:

(i). Reaction with Sodium: 2Na + CH3CH2Oh —–> 2CH3CH2ONa+ + H2

This reaction is used as a test for ethanol by the evolution of gas (Burn with POP sound).

(ii). Dehydration: CH3Ch2Oh —–> CH2=CH2 + H2O

Physical properties of Ethanoic Acid:-

  1. A colorless liquid having a sour taste and have the smell of vinegar.
  2. The boiling point is 391K.
  3. When pure CH3COOh is a freezer, it forms a colorless ice-like solid. So it is called glacial Acid.

Chemical Properties:-

(i). Esterification:- CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH ——-> Ester Formula.

Sweet Smelling ester is Formation Reaction. Write Reaction.

(ii). Reaction with base:-

NaOH + CH3COOh —–> CH3COOhNa(Sodium Acetate) + H2O

(iii). reaction of Carbonates and Hydrogen carbonates:-

2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 —–> 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2

CH3COOh + NaHCO3 —-> Ch3COONa(Sodium Acetate) + H2O + CO2

Soaps and Detergents:- Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th

  1. Soap is Sodium or Potassium salt of long chain carboxylic acid. Example:- C17H35COONa+
  2. Soaps are effective only in soft water.
  3. Detergents are ammonium or sulfate salt of a long chain of carbonate Acid.\
  4. Detergents are effective in both hard and Soft water.

Soap Molecules has:

  1. Ionic(hydrophilic) part.
  2. Long Hydrocarbon chain (Hydrophobic) part.

Cleansing Action of Soap

  1. Most Dirt is oily in nature and hydrophobic end attaches itself with dirt and the ionic end surrounded with molecule;e of water. This results in the formation of a radial structure called Micelles.
  2. Soap micelles help to dissolve dirt and grease in water and cloth gets cleaned.
  3. The magnesium and calcium salt present in hard water react with soap Molecule to form an insoluble product called scum. This scum creates difficulty in cleansing action.
  4. By the use of detergent, Insoluble scum is not formed with hard water and clothes get cleaned effectively.

So, Here the Brief notes of this chapter end. And if you wanted to learn this chapter in more detail. Then here are some following links where I have covered all this chapter in Detailed. Part 1, part 2, Part 3. Complete content is divided into 3 Subparts.

So you can go and to them as well. [Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th]

And if you have any doubts related to this chapter then please let me know in the comments section. I will try to Solve your all Queries as soon as possible.

Here are some more Useful Links related to this chapter: NCERT Solutions, NCERT Exemplars, Practice Questions, Solved Extra Questions and Quizzes of this Chapter. You can Check to them as well.

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Carbon and it’s Compounds Notes Class 10th Chemistry

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