Class 10th Ch-3 Notes [Metals and Non-Metals], Here we are going to cover this chapter in-depth in the form of Notes. These are the type notes provided by classXscience.com Team.
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- Physical Properties of Metals:-
- Physical Properties of Non-Metals:-
- Chemical Properties of the Metals:-
- The reaction of the Metals with Water:-
- The reaction of Metals with Acids (Dilute):-
- Reaction of Metals with solution of others Metal Salts:-
- Reactivity Series:-
- Reaction of Metals with Non-Metals:-
- Ionic compounds:-
- Properties of Ionic Compounds:-
- The occurrence of Metals:-
- Extraction of Metals from Ores:-
- Refining of Metals:
- Prevention of corrosion
Elements can be classified as metals and non-metals on the basis of their properties.
Examples of some metals are:- Iron(Fe), Aluminium(Al), Silver(Ag), Copper(Cu).
Examples of some non-metals are:- Hydrogen(H), Nitrogen(N), Sulphur(S), Oxygen(O).
Physical Properties of Metals:-
Lusture:- Metals have the shining surface.
Hardness:- They are generally hard. Except for Sodium, Lithium, and potassium which are soft and can be cut with a knife.
State:- Exists as solids. Except for Mercury.
Malleability:- Metals can be beaten into thin sheets. Gold and Silver are the most malleable Metals.
Ductility:- Metals can be drawn into thin wires.
The conductor of heat and Electricity:- Metals are good conductors of electricity. Silver(Ag) and Copper(Cu) are the best conductors of heat. Lead(Pb), Mercury (Hg) poor conductor of heat.
Density:- Generally have high density and high melting point. Except for sodium and Potassium.
Sonorous:- Metals produce a sound on striking a hard surface.
Oxides:- Metallic oxides are basic in nature.
Physical Properties of Non-Metals:-
Lusture:- They do not have the shining surface Except Iodine.
Hardness:- Generally Soft. Except for Diamond, a form of carbon which is the hardest natural substance.
State:- Exist as solids or Gaseous. Except for Bromine.
Malleability:- Non-Metals are non-malleable.
Ductility:- They are non-ductile.
The conductor of heat and electricity:- Non-Metals poor conductor of heat and electricity. Except for graphite.
Density:- Generally have low density and low melting point.
Sonorous:- They are not Sonorous.
Oxides:- Non-Metallic oxides are acidic in nature.
Chemical Properties of the Metals:-
1. Reaction with Air:-
Metals combine with oxygen to form metal Oxide.
Metal + O2 ——> Metal Oxide
Examples:- (1). 2Cu+ O2 —-> 2CuO (Black), (2). 4Al + 3O2 —-> 2Al2O3 (Aluminium oxide), (3). 2Mg + O2 —-> 2MgO
Different Metals show different activities towards O2.
Na and k react so vigorously that they catch fire if kept in open so they are kept immersed in kerosene.
Surfaces of Magnesium, Aluminium, Zinc, Lead, are covered with a thin layer of oxide which prevent them from further oxidation.
Fe does not burn on heating but iron fillings burn vigorously.
Cu does not burn but is coated with black copper oxide.
Au and ag do not react with oxygen.
Amphoteric Oxides:- Metal oxides which react with both acids, as well as bases, produce salts and water are called amphoteric oxides.
Examples:- Al2O3 + HCl —–> 2AlCl3 + H2O, Al2O3 + 2NaOH —–> 2NaAlO2(Sodium Aluminate) + H2O.
The reaction of the Metals with Water:-
Metal + water —–> Metal Oxide + Hydrogen
Metal oxide + water —–> Metal hydroxide
Examples:- (I). 2Na + 2H2O —-> 2NaOH + H2 + her.
(ii). Ca + 2H2O ——> Ca(OH)2 + H2
(iii). Mg + 2H2O ——> Mg(OH)2 + H2
(iv). 2Al + 3H2O —–> Al2O3 + 3H2
(v). 3Fe + 4H2O ——> Fe2O3 + 4H2.
The reaction of Metals with Acids (Dilute):-
Metal + Dilute Acid ——> Salt + H2
Cu, Ag, Hg do nit React with acids.
Examples:- (I). Fe + 2HCl ——> FeCl2 + H2
(ii). Mg + 2HCl —–> MgCl2 + H2
(iii). Zn + 2HCl ——-> ZnCl2 + H2
(iv). 2Al + 6HCl ——–> 2AlCl3 + 3H2
Reaction of Metals with solution of others Metal Salts:-
Metalal A + Salt solution B ——> salt solution A + Metal B
Reactive metals can displace less reactive metals from their compounds in solution form. Fe+ CuSO4 ——> FeSO4 + Cu
Reaction of Metals with Non-Metals:-
Reactivity of elements is the tendency to attain a completely filled valence shell.
Atoms of the metals lose electrons from their valence shell to form a cation. An atom of the non-metals gains electrons in the valency shell to form an anion.
Example:- Formation of NaCl and formation of MgCl2.
The Compounds formed by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are called ionic Compounds or Electrovalent Compounds.
Properties of Ionic Compounds:-
Physical Nature:- These compounds are solid in nature. Hard and Brittle.
Melting Point and Boiling Point:- They have a high melting point and boiling point.
Solubility:- Generally soluble I water and insoluble in solvents such as kerosene, Petrol, Etc:-
Conduction of Electricity;- Ionic Compounds conducts electricity in molten and solution form but not in solid-state.
The occurrence of Metals:-
Minerals:- The Elements or compounds which occur ne=aturally in the earth’s crust are called minerals.
Ores:- Minerals that contain a very high percentage of particular metal and the ores metal can be profitability extracted from it, Such minerals are called ores.
Extraction of Metals from Ores:-
Step1:- Enrichment of Ores.
Step2:- Extraction of Metals.
Step3:- Refining of Metals.
Steps Involved in the Extraction of Metals from Ores:-
Some Important Terms:-
(a). Gangue:- ores are usually contaminated with a large number of impurities such as soil, sand, etc. called Gangue.
(b). Roasting:- The Sulphide ores are converted into oxides by heating strongly in the presence of excess air. The Process is called Roasting.
2ZnS + 3O2 ——-> 2ZnO + 2SO2
(c). Calcination:- The carbonate ores are changed into oxides by heating strongly in limited Air. This process is called Calcination.
ZnCO3 ——> ZnO + CO2
(d). Metal Oxides are reduced to corresponding metals by using a reducing agent like carbon.
ZnO + C ——> Zn + CO
Refining of Metals:
The most widely used method for refining impure metal is electrolytic refining.
Anode:- Impure Copper.
Cathode:- Strip of pure copper.
Electrolyte:- Solution of acidified copper sulfate.
(a). On passing the current through the electrolyte, the impure metal from anode dissolves into the electrolyte.
(b). An Equivalent amount of pure metal from the electrolyte has deposited the cathode.
(c). The Insoluble impurities settle down at the button of the anode and called anode mud.
The surface of some metals such as iron is corroded when they are exposed to moist air for a long period of time. This is called Corrosion.
(I). Silver becomes black when exposed to air as it reacts with the air to form a coating of silver sulfide.
(ii). Copper reacts with the most carbon dioxide in the air and gains a green coat of copper carbonate.
(iii). iron, when exposed to moist air, acquires a coating of a brown flaky substance called rust.
Prevention of corrosion
The trusting of iron can be prevented by painting, oiling, greasing, galvanization, chrome plating, anodizing or making alloys.
Galvanization:- It is a method of protecting steel and iron from rusting by coating them with a thin layer of Zinc.
Alloy:- An Alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or a non-metal.
Iron:- Mixed with a small amount of carbon becomes hard and strong.
Steel:- Iron + Nickel and Chromium.
Brass:- Copper + Zinc
Bronze:- Copper + Tin(Sn)
Solder:- Lead + Tin
Amalgam:- If one of the metal is mercury (Hg).
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