Class 10th Science Ch-5 Chapter Detailed Notes Part-1 Periodic Table & its Classification, This is the Detailed Summary/Notes of this chapter. If you are looking for the Brief and the Comprehensive notes of this chapter, then just click here (Class 10th science ch-5 Notes)to check it out.
Here we have discussed the Ancient Periodic table, About the different Ancient discoveries, Different periodic laws, and the classifications.
Here is the Table of Content given Below that will help you to navigate throughout the content easily.
What are some of the Important that you have to memories from this chapter?
You will learn about the properties of the elements in the proper series.
how the different properties change when we move across the periods or when we move down the group.
We will learn about the different properties of metals that are Metallic character, non-metallic characters, Atomic Radius, Atomic size and many more things like how we classify the elements. History of the Periodic Table. And How we decide that where we have to put the elements in which slot.
Some Important Facts about the elements of the Periodic table:-
Elements such as gold, silver, mercury were known since ancient times. No one knows when and how all these elements were discovered.
The first metal which was discovered was Copper. It was an accidental discovery.
The first metal which was discovered formally was Phosphorus in 1949.
There are 90 naturally occurring elements and all others are man-made.
Technetium was the first man-made element that is used as the Rocket fuel.
Classification of the Elements in the Early time:-
Döbereiner was the first person who tries to arrange the elements in the proper manner in 1817. And at that time he introduces the Periodic table for the first time.
His model was the first Model of arranging the elements in the periodic table. And it was not an effective model. But he gives a new way to think in the Inorganic Chemistry.
He arranged the elements by taking the average of the masses of the different elements.
Newlands Laws of Octaves:-
After the Döbereiner’s Triads Newlands was the person who arranged the elements in the different forms. At that time there were 56 elements discovered.
He observes that the very first element have similar properties to the first and the 8th. Similarly 2nd with 9th, 3rd with 10th, and so on.
He classifies the elements on the basis of the octaves law that is SA, RE, GA, MA, PA DHE, NE, SA. The following is the table which was given by the Newlands.
He classified the elements on the increasing of their Atomic masses.
What was the drawbacks of the Newlands octaves Law:-
He said that no other element will be discovered in the future. and there are only 56 elements that exist in nature.
He puts two unlike elements in the same slot assuming that both the elements have similar properties.
His Periodic table was only applicable until calcium. His rule was valid on the lighter elements only.
He puts the similar properties elements farther in his Periodic Table.
His periodic table also failed because he tries to connect the Music with the Chemistry.
Mendelleves Periodic table:-
Dimitri Mendelleves is the father of the Modern Periodic Table. And He was a Russian chemist. His model was almost successful and his assumptions of the different elements were also almost right. That is why he is known as the father of the modern Periodic Table.
What criteria he chooses to classify the elements in his periodic table.
He classifies all the elements on the basis of the increase in their Atomic Masses. His periodic law was the same as Newlands Law, that is “All the elements are the Periodic function of their Atomic Masses.”
There was one more criterion that makes his classification different and more relevant than the Newlands Periodic Table.
He made 63 cards and arranged the elements into 6 horizontal columns and the 8 vertical columns, which are also known as periods and groups respectively.
He classifies the elements by reacting to the different elements with oxygen and hydrogen. Because O2 and h2 almost react with each and every element.
That’s why he takes the base of H2 and O2 and then classifies the different elements as you can see in the table given below.
What were the Achievements of the Mendelleves?
Ans:-He left some gaps in his periodic table. Because at that time only 63 elements were known he said that the table will be filled when more elements will be discovered in the future.
He also predicted the properties of the different elements that were true. The elements were. Eka-Aluminium, Eka-Silicona, and Eka-boron.
He also corrected the atomic masses of some elements that were Indium, Beryllium, and Uranium.
He made a separate group for the Noble Elements that is also known as the Zero group. And also he made the new period for the radio elements. That was the 7th period in his Periodic Table.
What were the limitations of the Mendellevs periodic Law?
Ans:- When he creates his periodic table, There was no group for the noble gases.
Position of Hydrogen:- He was not able to define the exact position of the Hydrogen. Because hydrogen shows the property of Hylogens (17th group) and the Alkali (1st group) elements.
Position of Isotopes:- He was not able to define the place for the isotopes in his Periodic table.
He put some elements in the wrong order. He was not able to justify the correct place for some elements in his periodic table.
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