Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (II)

Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (II)
Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (II)

Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (II), this is the 2nd part of our series in which I have covered the chapter in detail. If you haven’t check out the 1st part of this series then please checked it out.

Here are some Important Links related to this chapter. If you are searching for these then just go now and check them. NCERT Exemplar, NCERT Solutions, Solved Extra Question Answers, Practice Questions, and Quizzes and NOtes.

The occurrence of Metals:-

Earth crust is the major source of Metals and Seawater is the 2nd Largest source for the occurrence of metals.

What are Minerals?

The Compounds which occur naturally in the Earth crust are known as the Minerals. Like: MgCO2 is a Compound of Mg and it consists of the Magnesium. So the Mg will be the Mineral here and MgCO3 will be the Source from where the Mg will be Extracted.

What are Ores?

Ans:- When the Metals can be economically Extracted from their Minerals then it is known as Ore. If the Extraction of the Metal form the Mineral will not Be Economical then the Mineral will not be known as its ore.

Example:- 2FeS2 + 11/2 H2O ——> Fe2O3 + 4SO2

Fe2O3 + 3C —-> 2Fe + 3CO, Here the Extraction is Very Costly that’s why the FeS2(Iron Sulphide/Pirate) is not the Ore of the Iron. But it is the Mineral of the Iron from where the Iron can be Extracted.

***Every Ore can be a Mineral But Every Mineral cannot be an Ore.

What is Metallurgy:- Metallurgy is a Brach of the Science that deals with the Extraction of Metals from their Minerals.

Extraction of Metals:-

According to the Reactivity Series, Some of the Metals are Easy to extract from their Minerals. Whereas Some metals are Highly Reactive in nature so their Extraction process is Different.

Whereas Some of the noble Metals do not React with any other Compound and Salt. And they are freely available in nature. These are found in their Elemental form. Example:- Gold, Platinium.

Metals at the top of the Reactivity series are very Reactive in nature and they never are available in their free state.

Here is the Figure (From NCERT) that shows how the Metals that are Different Reactive in nature [Highly Reactive, Lowest and Medium] are Extracted from their Minerals.

Highly Reactive Metals are Extracted From the process of the Electrolysis.[Na, K,Mg,Ca,Al].

Moderate Reactive Metals are Extracted from their Minerals by the Process of using Carbon for Reduction.

Low Reactive Metals, usually these Metals are found in their Elemental form/native form. So need no Extraction. But Some time when Ag reacts with sulfur then Roasting Process is used for the Extraction of these Metals from their Mineral.

But Generally, these elements are found in their native form [Ag, Au, Cu,Pt].

Q. What is the Concentration of Ore?

Ans:- Removal of Unwanted Parties, is Known as Concentration of Ore. This is also known as the Gangue.

Calcination:- Heating of Ore in the presence of the Oxygen below its melting point is known as Calcination. This process is done to remove the Oxygen Molecules from Ore. Example:- CaCO3 —–Heat—–> CaO + CO2

Roasting:- This is also a similar process to the Calcination but in this case, We heat Ore in the excess of the Oxygen. This process is known as Roasting.

Q. Why we always convert the Ores in their Oxide form? why we don’t directly Extract the Metals form their Metal Sulphide?

Ans:- This is done Because the Extraction of the Metals from their Ores is very cheap when we Extract form their oxide form as Compared with the Sulphide Form.

Enrichment of Ores:- [Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (II)]

Enrichment of Ore is also known as the Concentration of the ore. This is the process that includes the crushing of the Ores and removal of the extra Impurities. Like:- Solil, Rocks, etc.

The unwanted Particles are also known as the gangue. And here are some Processes that are used in the removal of the Gangue form the Ores.

  1. Hand Picking.
  2. Gravity Separation.
  3. Magnetic Separation.
  4. Forth Floating.

Extracting Metals Low in the Activity Series

The metals which are low at the reactivity series are very less reactive in nature. We can Extract the Metals at the lower Reactivity Series through the Process of Heating only.

Because these are present in the form of Sulphide. As you see in the above figure, through the process of Roasting we convert Metals into their oxide form. And then Heat again. then it gets Converted into its original form.

All this means that if you will provide Excess heat to the low reactive Metals in the presence of oxygen below their melting point. Then they will directly be converted into their native form.

Example:- 2HgS + 3O2 –(heat)—> 2HgO + 2SO2

2HgO —(Heat)—-> 2Hg + O2

What is Thermit Reaction?

This is a type of Reaction in which a large amount of energy is released at the time of reaction. Example:- 3MnO2 (s) + 4Al(s) → 3Mn(l) + 2Al 2 O3(s) + Heat.

Corrosion:

Oxidation of Metals is known as Corrosion.

What are the Preventions of the Corrosion?

Ans:- Galvination, Printing, Anodising, Chromium Plating.

What is Galvanization?

This is the process of adding a thin layer of Zinc to the metal Surface so that the Metal can be Protected from the Corrosion.

What is Anodising?

This is a Electrolytic Process of adding a thin layer of the Aluminium to the Surface of the Metals. So that the Metal can be Prevented from further Corrosion.

Alloys:-

Q. What are Alloys?

Alloys are the homogeneous Mixtures of 2 or more Metals and Non-Metals. Here are some examples of the Alloys: Brass, Bronze, Solder, Etc.

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