Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary, In this blog you are going to learn the summary of the chapter. here is the table of content from where you can understand what I have covered in this blog.
- Q. What are Metals?
- Q. What are Non-Metals?
- Q. What are Ionic Compounds?
- What are the Covalent Compounds?
I have the second part of this chapter as well so by clicking here. You can check out the second part as well.
Q. What are Metals?
Metals are the materials/substances which are Lustrous(Shiny), Opaque and good Conductor of electricity and heat and which have the Sonorous Properties and Hard in nature.
Q. What are the Properties of a Metal?
Ans:- Hardness:- Metals are generally Hard in nature. Some are the Exceptions as well like Sodium and Potassium is a Metals but are soft in nature and can be cut through a knife.
Sonorous:- Metals are generally Somorous in nature means it produces sound on hammering.
Malleability:- On hammering the metals it gets to converted into the thin sheets. This property proves that the substance is Metal.
Ductility:- This is the property of metals in which we can convert metals into thin wire. This property of metals is known as Ductility. Example:- Copper wire. Aluminum Wire.
Conduction:- Metals are generally good conductors of electricity and also a good conductor of heat. There are some exceptions as well like Mercury is a Metal but it does not conduct heat and electricity.
lead is a Metal but it is the poorest conductor of electricity. Whereas Gold and Silver are the best conductors of electricity.
Melting Point:- The melting point of the metals are very high in nature. Here are some of the Examples, Like the melting point of Silver and Copper is 961*C and 1085*C.
Boiling Point:- Boiling points of the metals are also very high in nature. For Example:- Boiling point of copper and silver is 2562*C and 2,162 °C respectively.
Valency:- If you will see the elements with their valency then Metals have 1-3 Electrons in their outermost shell. This also included in the Physical Properties of metals.
Q. What are the Chemical Properties of Metals?
When metals burn in the air in the presence of Oxygen:-Metal + Oxygen —–> Metal Oxides. For Example:- Cu + O2 —–> CuO
***Metallic Oxides are Acidic in nature.
Q. What happens when Metals Reacts with water?
Ans:- When metals react with water it produces Metal Oxide and H2 gas. And when further metal oxides react with the water then it forms Metal Hydroxide. Like:- Metal + water —-> Metaloxide + Oxygen, Metaloxide + Water —–> Metal Hydroxide.
Example:- K + H2O —-> KOH + H2, and further when KOH reacts with water it produces K(OH)2.
Q. What happens when metals react with the other metal salts?
Ans:- In this case highly reactive metal replaces the less reactive metals from their position. Here is the reactivity series below.
The Metals which are at the top of the reactivity series are high;y reactive in nature and the metals which are lower at the reactivity series are less reactive in nature.
Q. What are Non-Metals?
Ans:- The elements which are dull looking in nature and electronegative in nature + Poor conductor of heat and electricity are known as Non-Metals. Here are the few characteristics of the non-metals that will help you in Identifying Either the material is metal or a non-metal.
Properties of non-metals:- [Metals and Non-Metals Class 10th ch-3 Summary (1)]
Ductility:- Non-metals are nonductile in nature. Non-metals have the opposite properties of the metals.
Sonorous:- Non-Metals are non-sonorous in nature. On hammering it gonna breaks.
Ductility:- Non-metals are basically non-ductile in nature. Means non-metals cannot be converted into thin wires.
Malleability:- Nonmetals are also non-malleable in nature. They cannot be converted into thin sheets by hammering.
These are the poor conductor of Heat and Electricity as well. Except for Graphite, Because graphite is a good conductor of electricity.
Appearance:– Non-metals are basically dull in nature. Except:- Iodine. Which is a non-metal but still it is lustrous in nature.
Density:- Non-Metals have a low density as compared with the Metals.
Non-metals have a low melting point and the low boiling point.
Q. What are the Chemical Properties of the Non-Metal.
Q. What happens when non-metals react with oxygen?
Ans:- When non-metals react with the oxygen in acidic oxides or neutral oxides are formed.
Q. What happens when non-metals react with the water?
Ans;- Non-Metals do not react with the water at all.
Q. What happens when dilute acid reacts with non-metals?
Ans:- Non-Metals do not react with the acids at all.
Q. What happens when metals react with non-metals?
Ans:- When metals react with the nob-metals then Ionic compounds formed because the transfer of electrons takes place. Electrons transfer from the Metals to non-metals to form the ionic compounds. Example:- Na + Cl —-> NaCl.
Q. What are Ionic Compounds?
Ans:- When Positively charged metal and a negatively charged non-metal reacts with each other then the formation of a compound takes place which is electrically neutral in nature is known as Ionic Compound.
Q. What are the properties of the Ionic Compounds?
Ans:- Here are some properties of the Ionic Compounds:-
State:- Ionic compounds are generally harder, brittle and solid in nature. Because they have a higher force of attraction between their bonds.
Conduction of Electricity:- Ionic compounds are the good conductor of electricity in their aqueous form. Ionic compounds are also known as the electrovalent compounds.
Solubility:- Ionic compounds are generally soluble in water. But these compounds are Insoluble in different solvents like petrol and kerosene.
Melting point and boiling Point:- Generally, Melting point and the boiling point of the Ionic compounds are high in nature. Because they have a higher force of attraction between their atoms. So a huge amount of energy is required to break down the electrostatic force of attraction between the ions of the Ionic compounds.
What are the Covalent Compounds?
Ans:- The covalent compounds are the compounds that are formed by sharing the pairs of electrons between the two different elements. The force of attraction between the atoms in the covalent compounds is not very strong as compared with the Ionic compounds.
Although we will further study the covalent compounds in our next chapter that is Carbon and its compound.
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